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Varicocele


A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of veins drains the testicles. The testicular blood vessels originate in the abdomen and course down through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord on their way to the testis. Upward flow of blood in the veins is ensured by small one-way valves that prevent backflow. Defective valves, or compression of the vein by a nearby structure, can cause dilatation of the testicular veins near the testis, leading to the formation of a varicocele. Varicocele is known as one of the main causes for male infertility and can be treated by a surgery or non-surgical treatments.

 

 
Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy (Greek, -prostates, "prostate", combined with the suffix -ektomē, "excision") is a medical term for the surgicalremoval of all or part of the prostate gland. This operation is done for benign conditions that cause urinary retention, as well as forprostate cancer and other cancers of the pelvis.
There are two main types of prostatectomies. A simple prostatectomy (also known as a subtotal prostatectomy) is when only part of the prostate is removed. Simple prostatectomies are typically only done for benign conditions. A radical prostatectomy, the removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles and the vas deferens, is performed for malignant cancer.
There are multiple ways the operation can be done: as an open surgery (with a large incision through the lower abdomen),laparoscopically with the help of a robot (a type of minimally invasive surgery), through the urethra or through the perineum.
Other terms that can be used to describe a prostatectomy, include
Nerve-sparing: the blood vessels and nerves that promote penile erections are left behind in the body and not taken out with the prostate
Limited pelvic lymph node dissection: the lymph nodes surrounding and close to the prostate are taken out (typically the area defined by external iliac vein anteriorly, the obturator nerve posteriorly, the origin of the internal iliac artery proximally, Cooper's ligament distally, the bladder medially and the pelvic side wall laterally.
Extended pelvic lymph node dissection: lymph nodes farther away from the prostate are taken out also (typically the area defined in a limited PLND with the posterior boundary as the floor of the pelvis.


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